The fine structure of the rod-bipolar synapse is described and illustrated. Each rod spherule possesses a large, single, oval or elongate mitochondrion approximately 0.5 x 2.0 microns. Surrounding the mitochondrion are elements of agranular endoplasmic reticulum. The bipolar dendrite projects into the lower pole of the spherule and usually terminates in two lobes separated by a cleft. The plasma membranes appear dense and thicker in the region of the synapse. In the rod spherule cytoplasm, contiguous with the plasma membrane is a dense, slightly concave arciform structure, the rod arciform density, extending from the base of the bipolar bifid process through the cleft to an equivalent point on the opposite side. Also within the spherule, and external (towards the sclera) to the rod arciform density, is a parallel, dense, thin lamella, the rod synaptic lamella. This is approximately 25 mµ in thickness and 400 mµ in width at its widest extent. This halfmoon-shaped plate straddles the cleft between the two lobes of the bipolar process. The lamella appears to consist of short regular rodlets or cylinders 5 to 7 mµ in diameter, oriented with their long axes perpendicular to the plane of the lamella. Minute cytoplasmic vesicles found in the cytoplasm of both the rod spherule and the bipolar terminal are most abundant near the rod synaptic lamella.

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