The ultrastructure of the mitochondria of the cultured cortical cells of rat adrenals was studied. In vivo it was found that the zona fasciculata mitochondria have vesicular internal structure. 600-A vesicles appear free in the matrix or as protrusions of the inner mitochondrial membrane. In tissue cultures of the fetal and newborn rat adrenal cortex it was seen that ACTH induces transformation of the tubulo-vesicular internal structure of the mitochondria to 600-A vesicles. Actinomycin D and puromycin inhibited this transformation if they were added with ACTH. When added alone, these inhibitors of protein synthesis induced no change in the ultrastructure of the mitochondria in cultured cortical cells of rat adrenals.

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