Proliferation of Schwann cells in neonatal mouse sciatic nerve was studied radioautographically in 1-µ glycol methacrylate sections. 28 mice were injected with thymidine-3H, 4 µc/g, 48 hr after birth, and were killed serially over the next 4 days. For the cell cycle following injection, the generation time was approximately 24 hr as determined by grain-count halving data; the duration of synthesis phase was 8 hr as determined from a curve constructed from the per cent of mitotic figures containing label; and the labeling index was 9% at 2 hr after injection. With these estimates, the per cent of Schwann cells proliferating was calculated to be 27%. In addition, roughly 25% of dividing cells appeared to cease division during the cell cycle under study. The relationship of these findings to other events during maturation of nerve is discussed.

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