The biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas reinhardi was studied with the light and electron microscopes to determine the behavior of flagella in the living cell and the structure of the basal apparatus of the flagella. During normal forward swimming the flagella beat synchronously in the same plane, as in the human swimmer's breast stroke. The form of beat is like that of cilia. Occasionally cells swim backward with the flagella undulating and trailing the cell. Thus the same flagellar apparatus produces two types of motion. The central pair of fibers of both flagella appear to lie in the same plane, which coincides with the plane of beat. The two basal bodies lie in a V configuration and are joined at the top by a striated fiber and at the bottom by two smaller fibers. From the area between the basal bodies four bands of microtubules, each containing four tubules, radiate in an X-shaped pattern, diverge, and pass under the cell membrane. Details of the complex arrangement of tubules near the basal bodies are described. It seems probable that the connecting fibers and the microtubules play structural roles and thereby maintain the alignment of the flagellar apparatus. The relation of striated fibers and microtubules to cilia and flagella is reviewed, particularly in phytoflagellates and protozoa. Structures observed in the transitional region between the basal body and flagellar shaft are described and their occurrence is reviewed. Details of structure of the flagellar shaft and flagellar tip are described, and the latter is reviewed in detail.

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