The Holmes silver impregnation method has made possible the recognition of multiple neuronal types and synapses in myelinating cultures of mouse cerebellum. Well stained large and medium-sized neurons are always found in small numbers near ependymal formations and are considered to be roof nuclear neurons. Neurons with poorly stained somas, abruptly demarked from intensely stained axons, are numerous and often are arranged in palisades. With prolonged maintenance in vitro these neurons develop some but not all of the features of mature Purkinje cells. A few small, densely stained, bipolar neurons, often with one process bifurcated, are found in dense regions of some cultures of newborn cerebellum. These neurons are commoner in cultures from cerebella of older mice. They closely resemble the immature granule cell in vivo. All the neuron types recognized in cultures are present in the initial explants; neurons differentiate further in vitro, but new neurons probably do not form. Synaptic boutons are found on somas and dendrites of many Purkinje cells. Two cultures contained structures resembling the basket endings which surround Purkinje cell somas in vivo. The complexity of neuronal relationships in cultures of central nervous tissue is emphasized.

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