Experimental metastatic calcification in the proximal convoluted tubules of rat kidney, produced by large doses of vitamin D, has been studied with a variety of techniques. These techniques include the examination of thin sections of Araldite-embedded material under the electron microscope, selected area electron diffraction, and several histochemical methods. Two types of mineral are found in relation to the proximal convoluted tubule. The first form consists of aggregates of elongated crystals within cytoplasmic vacuoles of the proximal tubular cells. The dimensions of these crystals are consistent with those of hydroxyapatite. The other type of mineral deposit is found in and adjacent to the extracellular phase of the basal infoldings of these tubules. The latter deposits are made up of smaller crystals arranged in layers. These crystals could not be definitely identified by means of selected area electron diffraction. The observations are discussed in relation to calcium transport by the proximal convoluted tubule and also in terms of mechanisms of pathological calcification.

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