1. The submicroscopic organization of nerve axons from R. pipiens and R. catesbiana has been studied by means of polarizing and electron microscopes.
2. In measurements on a series of 85 fresh myelinated axons from which the sheaths had been removed average values were obtained for the total birefringence, +2.5 x 10–4, the form birefringence, +1.4 x 10–4, and the refractive index of the oriented component, 1.523. The average partial volume occupied by axially oriented filaments was computed to be 0.69 per cent.
3. Electron micrographs of fixed myelinated axons demonstrate an average of 93 axially oriented neuroprotofibrils per square micron of cross-section. The neuroprotofibrils are approximately 90 A in diameter, of indefinite length, and occupy a computed partial volume of 0.59 per cent.
4. Mitochondria, neuroprotofibrils, endoplasmic reticulum, and dense particles are seen in electron micrographs of both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve axons.
5. It is concluded that the neuroprotofibrils are present in the living nerve, that they play an important but undetermined role in nerve function, and that these structures are not an artifact of osmium tetroxide fixation.