Parallel studies were made of cholinesterase activities and localizations in denervated rat and rabbit gastrocnemius muscle. Koelle's histochemical reaction was used for demonstrating the localization of cholinesterases. Enzyme activities in whole sliced muscle were measured by electrometric titration. The Cartesian ampulla-diver technique was used for cholinesterase activity determinations in end plate regions or in small pieces of the muscle fibre itself. No changes in the activity of cholinesterases (ChE) were found in the whole denervated muscle which would account for its chemical supersensitivity. The ChE distribution pattern was changed so that the end plate region became less active in the denervated muscle than in the normal one. The decrease in ChE activity in the end plates seems to be largely compensated for by an increase of this enzyme elsewhere in the muscle. A possible connection between the spatial spread of cholinesterase activity and the enlargement of the acetylcholine-sensitive surface is discussed.

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