A study of the cell kinetics on the actively growing periosteal surface of the femur of rabbits aged 2 weeks has been continued. A single injection of tritiated thymidine was given and the rabbits killed from 1 hour to 4 days after injection. The grain count spectra of the different cell types, pre-osteoblast, osteoblast, and osteocyte, have been compared at different times after injection. The results showed evidence for the uptake of thymidine in nuclei which is not associated with cell division. A small percentage of osteoblasts was initially labeled at 1 hour and there was evidence that the majority of these had not divided by 3 or 4 days after injection. Some thymidine-labeled cells had also become osteocytes without division. Furthermore, it appeared that a considerable fraction of the initially labeled pre-osteoblasts did not divide. The S period for the pre-osteoblasts and osteoblasts was measured using a double-labeled thymidine technique.

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