The induction of melanization in xanthic goldfish scales with ACTH in vitro has been studied by light and electron microscopy utilizing ammoniated silver nitrate staining of premelanin and melanin. The melanized cells (melanophores and melanocytes) and the yellow pigmented cells (lipophores and the newly described lipocytes) were found to possess many similarities at the levels of cellular and subcellular structure. The latter cells contain characteristic cytoplasmic bodies which react positively to the premelanin stain. Changes accompanying ACTH stimulation of goldfish scales in tissue culture suggest that these bodies in the lipocytes and lipophores can become melanized. Electron micrographs illustrate the intermediate staining of newly formed melanin granules in an induced melanocyte and the appearance of a transitional melanolipophore. It is postulated that ACTH can promote the association of the enzyme tyrosinase with the preformed structure of unmelanized granules.

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