The walls of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder of rats were fixed in osmium tetroxide, embedded in methacrylate, and sectioned for electron microscopy. The examination of sections of smooth muscle tissue with the electron microscope reveals the presence of bundles of unmyelinated nerve fibers within the intercellular spaces. In addition, vesiculated nerve processes, bounded on their outer surfaces by delicate plasma membranes and typically containing varying quantities of synaptic vesicles and mitochondria, make intimate contact with the surface of smooth muscle cells. These nerve processes are similar in structure and disposition to nerve endings previously described in skeletal muscle, in the central nervous system, in peripheral ganglia, in receptors, and in glands. It is concluded that the relationships existing between vesiculated nerve processes and the surface of smooth muscle cells constitute neuromuscular junctions. Profiles of protrusions of smooth muscle cells are often seen protruding into the intercellular spaces. Here they occur singly or in groups, originating from one or more cells. Because of the plane of section the protrusions may sometimes appear as individual entities between the muscle cells. In such cases care must be exercised in their identification because they have characteristics similar to sectioned nerve processes which also occur in the intercellular spaces.

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