Recent evidence suggests that secretory vesicle formation from the TGN is regulated by cytosolic signaling pathways involving small GTP-binding proteins, heterotrimeric G proteins, inositol phospholipid metabolism, and protein serine/threonine phosphorylation. At the cell surface, protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation on tyrosine residues can rapidly modulate cytosolic signaling pathways in response to extracellular stimuli and have been implicated in the internalization and sorting of signaling receptors. to determine if phosphotyrosine metabolism might also regulate secretory vesicle budding from the TGN, we treated permeabilized rat pituitary GH3 cells with inhibitors of either tyrosine phosphatases or tyrosine kinases. We demonstrate that the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors pervanadate and zinc potently inhibited budding of nascent secretory vesicles. Tyrphostin A25 (TA25) and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors also prevented secretory vesicle release, suggesting that vesicle formation requires both phosphatase and kinase activities. A stimulatory peptide derived from the NH2 terminus of the small GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) antagonized the inhibitory effect of TA25, indicating that both agents influence the same pathway leading to secretory vesicle formation. Antiphosphotyrosine immunoblotting revealed that protein tyrosine phosphorylation was enhanced after treatment with tyrosine phosphatase or kinase inhibitors. Subcellular fractionation identified several tyrosine phosphorylated polypeptides of approximately 175, approximately 130, and 90-110 kD that were enriched in TGN-containing Golgi fractions and tightly membrane associated. The phosphorylation of these polypeptides correlated with inhibition of vesicle budding. Our results suggest that in endocrine cells, protein tyrosine phosphrylation and dephosphorylation are required for secretory vesicle release from the TGN.

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