The fine structure of Cyanidium caldarium, as seen in thin sections of KMnO4-fixed cells examined with the electron microscope, is described. This organism, whose taxonomic position among algae is undetermined, contains a single well defined chloroplast, a nucleus, and mitochondria. Studies, with the electron microscope, of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Nostoc are also reported. Structural differences within cells of Cyanidium, chlorella, and Nostoc are discussed. It is concluded that if Nostoc can be taken as a typical Cyanophyte and Chlorella as a representative Chlorophyte and if the items of fine structure examined are diagnostic, then Cyanidium is certainly not a Cyanophyte and, while it has numerous features in common with Chlorella, is not a green alga similar to Chlorella. Comparisons are also made between Cyanidium and other algae whose fine structure has been described by others.