The mechanisms involved in the targeting of proteins to different cytosolic compartments are still largely unknown. In this study we have investigated the targeting signal of the 65-kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), a major autoantigen in two autoimmune diseases: Stiff-Man syndrome and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. GAD65 is expressed in neurons and in pancreatic beta-cells, where it is concentrated in the Golgi complex region and in proximity to GABA-containing vesicles. GAD65, but not the similar isoform GAD67 which has a more diffuse cytosolic distribution, is palmitoylated within its first 100 amino acids (a.a.). We have previously demonstrated that the domain corresponding to a.a. 1-83 of GAD65 is required for the targeting of GAD65 to the Golgi complex region. Here we show that this domain is sufficient to target an unrelated protein, beta-galactosidase, to the same region. Site-directed mutagenesis of all the putative acceptor sites for thiopalmitoylation within this domain did not abolish targeting of GAD65 to the Golgi complex region. The replacement of a.a. 1-29 of GAD67 with the corresponding a.a. 1-27 of GAD65 was sufficient to target the otherwise soluble GAD67 to the Golgi complex region. Conversely, the replacement of a.a. 1-27 of GAD65 with a.a. 1-29 of GAD67 resulted in a GAD65 protein that had a diffuse cytosolic distribution and was primarily hydrophilic, suggesting that targeting to the Golgi complex region is required for palmitoylation of GAD65. We propose that the domain corresponding to a.a. 1-27 of GAD65, contains a signal required for the targeting of GAD65 to the Golgi complex region.
A signal located within amino acids 1-27 of GAD65 is required for its targeting to the Golgi complex region.
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M Solimena, R Dirkx, M Radzynski, O Mundigl, P De Camilli; A signal located within amino acids 1-27 of GAD65 is required for its targeting to the Golgi complex region.. J Cell Biol 15 July 1994; 126 (2): 331–341. doi: https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.126.2.331
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