Wallerian degeneration was produced in guinea pig sciatic nerves by a crush injury. At intervals of 2, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hours after the crush, the nerves were fixed in osmium tetroxide, and blocks from the distal, degenerating segment identified topographically prior to embedding in Araldite or Epon. Phase and electron microscopic study of serial cross- and longitudinal sections reveals a striking, localized accumulation of axonal mitochondria which precedes or accompanies the swelling and fragmentation previously reported by others. These focal accumulations of mitochondria are transient and are most frequently observed in the paranodal axoplasm of large myelinated fibers 24 to 36 hours after crush injury, but are also occasionally identified in small myelinated fibers and unmyelinated axons. Migration and proliferation of axonal mitochondria are considered as possible explanations of these observations.

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