Using immunocytochemical techniques and antibodies that specifically recognize xyloglucan (anti-XG), polygalacturonic acid/rhamnogalacturonan I (anti-PGA/RG-I), and methylesterified pectins (JIM 7), we have shown that these polysaccharides are differentially synthesized and localized during cell development and differentiation in the clover root tip. In cortical cells XG epitopes are present at a threefold greater density in the newly formed cross walls than in the older longitudinal walls, and PGA/RG-I epitopes are detected solely in the expanded middle lamella of cortical cell corners, even after pretreatment of sections with pectinmethylesterase to uncover masked epitopes. These results suggest that in cortical cells XG and PGA/RG-I are differentially localized not only to particular wall domains, but also to particular cell walls. In contrast to their nonoverlapping distribution in cortical cells, XG epitopes and PGA/RG-I epitopes largely colocalize in the epidermal cell walls. The results also demonstrate that the middle lamella of the longitudinal walls shared by epidermal cells and by epidermal and cortical cells constitutes a barrier to the diffusion of cell wall and mucilage molecules. Synthesis of XG and PGA/RG-I epitope-containing polysaccharides also varies during cellular differentiation in the root cap. The differentiation of gravitropic columella cells into mucilage-secreting peripheral cells is marked by a dramatic increase in the synthesis and secretion of molecules containing XG and PGA/RG-I epitopes. In contrast, JIM 7 epitopes are present at abundant levels in columella cell walls, but are not detectable in peripheral cell walls or in secreted mucilage. There were also changes in the cisternal labeling of the Golgi stacks during cellular differentiation in the root tip. Whereas PGA/RG-I epitopes are detected primarily in cis- and medial Golgi cisternae in cortical cells (Moore, P. J., K. M. M. Swords, M. A. Lynch, and L. A. Staehelin. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 112:589-602), they are localized predominantly in the trans-Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi network in epidermal and peripheral root cap cells. These observations suggest that during cellular differentiation the plant Golgi apparatus can be both structurally and functionally reorganized.

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