Granule membrane protein-140 (GMP-140) is an inducible receptor for myeloid leukocytes on activated platelets and endothelium. Like other selectins, GMP-140 recognizes specific oligosaccharide ligands. However, prior data on the nature of these ligands are contradictory. We investigated the structural features required for ligand interaction with GMP-140 using purified GMP-140, cells naturally expressing specific oligosaccharides, and cells expressing cloned glycosyltransferases. Like the related selectin endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1), GMP-140 recognizes alpha(2-3)sialylated, alpha(1-3)fucosylated lactosaminoglycans on both myeloid and nonmyeloid cells, including the sequence Neu5Ac alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4(Fuc alpha 1-3)GlcNac beta-R (sialyl Lewis x). Recognition requires sialic acid, because cells expressing large amounts of Lewis x, but not sialyl Lewis x, do not interact with GMP-140. Although sialyl Lewis x is expressed by both myeloid HL-60 cells and CHO cells transfected with an alpha 1-3/4 fucosyltransferase, GMP-140 binds with significantly higher affinity to HL-60 cells. Thus, the sialyl Lewis x tetrasaccharide may require additional structural modifications or specific presentations in order for leukocytes in flowing blood to interact rapidly and with high affinity to GMP-140 on activated platelets or endothelium.

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