Five out of six human melanoma cell lines tested were able to degrade in vitro a smooth muscle cell extracellular matrix in a plasmin-dependent way. In three of these five cell lines, this process was mediated by tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and in the other two cell lines by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). All melanoma cell lines produced t-PA mRNA and protein, whereas only the two cell lines showing u-PA-mediated matrix degradation produced u-PA mRNA and protein. These latter cell lines also produced plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) and type-2 (PAI-2) mRNA and protein. u-PA receptor (u-PA-R) mRNA and binding of radiolabeled u-PA was found in all melanoma cell lines. The metastatic capacity of these cell lines was studied in nude mice. All cell lines were able to develop primary tumors at the subcutaneous inoculation site. The production of plasminogen activators, their inhibitors and urokinase receptor by subcutaneous tumors corresponded with the production by the parental cell lines in vitro. The two u-PA and PAI-1 producing cell lines showed the highest frequency to form spontaneous lung metastases after subcutaneous inoculation, whereas five of the six cell lines formed lung colonies after intravenous inoculation. In conclusion, u-PA mediated matrix degradation in vitro and production of u-PA and PAI-1 by human melanoma cell lines correlated with their ability to form spontaneous lung metastasis in nude mice. No correlation was found with the ability to form lung colonies after intravenous injection. These findings suggest a role for u-PA and PAI-1 in a relatively early stage of melanoma metastasis.
Metastatic behavior of human melanoma cell lines in nude mice correlates with urokinase-type plasminogen activator, its type-1 inhibitor, and urokinase-mediated matrix degradation.
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P H Quax, G N van Muijen, E J Weening-Verhoeff, L R Lund, K Danø, D J Ruiter, J H Verheijen; Metastatic behavior of human melanoma cell lines in nude mice correlates with urokinase-type plasminogen activator, its type-1 inhibitor, and urokinase-mediated matrix degradation.. J Cell Biol 1 October 1991; 115 (1): 191–199. doi: https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.115.1.191
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