Two different methods, stimulation of transport by fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and inhibition of transport by a nonhydrolyzable analogue of palmitoyl-CoA, reveal that fatty acylation is required to promote fusion of transport vesicles with Golgi cisternae. Specifically, fatty acyl-CoA is needed after the attachment of coated vesicles and subsequent uncoating of the vesicles, and after the binding of the NEM-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) to the membranes, but before the actual fusion event. We therefore suggest that an acylated transport component participates, directly or indirectly, in membrane fusion.

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