Transduction of signals initiating motility by extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules differed depending on the type of matrix molecule and whether the ligand was in solution or bound to a substratum. Laminin, fibronectin, and type IV collagen stimulated both chemotaxis and haptotaxis of the A2058 human melanoma cell line. Peak chemotactic responses were reached at 50-200 nM for laminin, 50-100 nM for fibronectin, and 200-370 nM for type IV collagen. Checkerboard analysis of each attractant in solution demonstrated a predominantly directional (chemotactic) response, with a minor chemokinetic component. The cells also migrated in a concentration-dependent manner to insoluble step gradients of substratum-bound attractant (haptotaxis). The haptotactic responses reached maximal levels at coating concentrations of 20 nM for laminin and type IV collagen, and from 30 to 45 nM for fibronectin. Pretreatment of cells with the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (5 micrograms/ml), resulted in a 5-30% inhibition of both chemotactic and haptotactic responses to each matrix protein, indicating that de novo protein synthesis was not required for a significant motility response. Pretreatment of cells with 50-500 micrograms/ml of synthetic peptides containing the fibronectin cell-recognition sequence GRGDS resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of fibronectin-mediated chemotaxis and haptotaxis (70-80% inhibition compared to control motility); negative control peptide GRGES had only a minimal effect. Neither GRGDS nor GRGES significantly inhibited motility to laminin or type IV collagen. Therefore, these results support a role for the RGD-directed integrin receptor in both types of motility response to fibronectin. After pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PT), chemotactic responses to laminin, fibronectin, and type IV collagen were distinctly different. Chemotaxis to laminin was intermediate in sensitivity; chemotaxis to fibronectin was completely insensitive; and chemotaxis to type IV collagen was profoundly inhibited by PT. In marked contrast to the inhibition of chemotaxis, the hepatotactic responses to all three ligands were unaffected by any of the tested concentrations of PT. High concentrations of cholera toxin (CT; 10 micrograms/ml) or the cAMP analogue, 8-Br-cAMP (0.5 mM), did not significantly affect chemotactic or haptotactic motility to any of the attractant proteins, ruling out the involvement of cAMP in the biochemical pathway initiating motility in these cells. The sensitivity of chemotaxis induced by laminin and type IV collagen, but not fibronectin, to PT indicates the involvement of a PT-sensitive G protein in transduction of the signals initiating motility to soluble laminin and type IV collagen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Signal transduction for chemotaxis and haptotaxis by matrix molecules in tumor cells.
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S Aznavoorian, M L Stracke, H Krutzsch, E Schiffmann, L A Liotta; Signal transduction for chemotaxis and haptotaxis by matrix molecules in tumor cells.. J Cell Biol 1 April 1990; 110 (4): 1427–1438. doi: https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.110.4.1427
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