A 58-kD cis-Golgi protein has been identified by generating polyclonal antibodies against heavy (cis) Golgi subfractions. Total microsomes isolated from rat pancreatic homogenates were subfractionated to yield a rough microsomal fraction (B1) and three smooth membrane subfractions (B2-B4) enriched in cis-, middle, and trans-Golgi elements, respectively. The heavy (cis) subfraction, B2 (d = 1.17 g/ml), was fractionated by Triton X-114 phase separation, and the proteins recovered in the detergent phase were used to immunize rabbits. One of the anti-B2 antibodies obtained gave a "Golgi"-staining pattern when screened by immunofluorescence on normal rat kidney cells and mouse RPC 5.4 myeloma cells. In rat pancreatic exocrine cells the antibody reacted with the plasmalemma as well as elements in the Golgi region. By immunoelectron microscopy, the antigen recognized by anti-B2 IgG was found to be restricted to cis-Golgi elements in myeloma cells where it was concentrated in the fenestrated cis-most cisterna and in some of the tubules and vesicles located along the cis face of the Golgi complex. By immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting, the anti-B2 IgG exclusively recognized a 58-kD protein in myeloma cells. The anti-B2 IgG reacted with several proteins in solubilized pancreatic B2 membranes, including a 58-kD protein, but affinity-purified anti-58-kD IgG reacted exclusively with the 58-kD protein. These results suggest that the 58-kD protein is a specific component of cis-Golgi membranes.