The ultrastructural localization of growth hormone and prolactin in cow anterior pituitary was studied by double immunocytochemical labeling using specific antibodies and protein A-gold particles of different sizes. The two hormones were found in specific somatotrophs and mammotrophs as well as in somatomammotropic cells which were multinucleated and predominantly arranged in clusters in the central area of the lobules. In these mixed cells the two hormones were packaged (a) in different granules of the same cell, (b) in the same granules where they were segregated in different portions of the granule content, or (c) in the same granules but evenly intermixed. The relative proportion of these three types of granules varied in somatomammotrophs of different animals. A single large Golgi complex was generally present in somatomammotrophs. Small, immature granules containing either growth hormone or prolactin or both hormones were found randomly distributed along Golgi stacks. This suggests that in these cells the two hormones are processed in the same Golgi cisternae and that mechanism(s) exist(s) to sort out the two hormones from each other.

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