External ATP causes a prompt increase in the Na and K permeability of dog red blood cells. By manipulating intra- and extracellular ion composition it is possible to observe ATP-induced net fluxes which can be explained in terms of the contribution of Na or K diffusion potentials to the membrane potential. Measurements of membrane voltage by a fluorescent dye technique confirm the existence of such potentials. A rough calculation of chloride permeability gives a value of the order of 10(-8) cm/s, which agrees with results in other species. The cells appear to be somewhat more permeable to bromide than to chloride.