The influence of strophanthidin, ouabain, and the removal of external sodium on the sodium efflux from frog sartorius muscle was measured. In freshly dissected muscles strophanthidin and ouabain in maximally effective concentrations reduced the efflux of sodium by about 50%. Of the sodium efflux which is strophanthidin-insensitive about 75% is inhibited after complete replacement of external sodium by lithium. In the absence of strophanthidin replacement of external sodium by lithium, calcium, or magnesium produces an initial rise in the sodium efflux, followed by a fall in the efflux as the exposure of the muscles to sodium-free media is continued. When the muscles are exposed for prolonged periods in sodium-free media, the fraction of internal sodium lost per minute is higher when returned to normal Ringer fluid than it was initially. The activation of sodium efflux by external sodium after long periods in sodium-free solutions is partly strophanthidin-sensitive and partly strophanthidin-insensitive. The internal sodium concentration is an important factor in these effects. The effects of temperature on the sodium efflux were also measured. Above 7°C the Q10 of both the strophanthidin-sensitive and strophanthidin-insensitive sodium efflux is about 2.0. Below 7°C the strophanthidin-insensitive sodium efflux has a Q10 of about 7.4.

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