A realistic model of a fixed-charge membrane was constructed to elucidate the principles involved in the Teorell-Meyer-Sievers theory. Polyelectrolyte solutions (polystyrene sulfonic acid or gelatin) were used in a multicompartment cell to serve as the "membrane." The ionic concentration and potential differences between the compartments served as a finite increment approximation to a continuous membrane phase. The profiles obtained for a positively and negatively charged membrane gave striking support for the theory.

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