1. The blood of Chortophaga viridifasciata was analyzed. The average concentrations of inorganic cations expressed as milligrams per cent are: sodium, 250.66; potassium, 13.52; calcium, 11.40; and magnesium, 51.15. The osmotic pressure of the blood at 0°C. is 10.7 atmospheres. Protein and non-protein nitrogen, expressed as milligrams per cent, are 253.4 and 140.0, respectively.

2. The blood of Samia walkeri has an osmotic pressure of 13.36 atmospheres at 0°C. Its protein nitrogen is 628.58, and its non-protein nitrogen, 441.20 milligrams per cent.

3. The effects of isotonic chloride solutions of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium and of distilled water on the heart beat of these two species were determined. The heart of the grasshopper failed to beat in isotonic solutions of KCl, MgCl2, or in distilled water. For both insects, sodium was found to be the least toxic ion. In the case of the grasshopper, calcium ranks next in order. In the case of the moth, potassium ranks next after sodium and is followed by calcium and magnesium.

4. The ratio of sodium to potassium in milligrams per cent, necessary for maintaining the normal heart beat of Chortophaga viridifasciata is 3 to 1, but it may be increased to at least 34 to 1 without any appreciable effects. The ratio of potassium to calcium necessary for maintaining the normal heart beat of this insect is 1 to 1, and may be increased to as much as 3 to 1.

5. The ratio of sodium to potassium, in milligrams per cent, necessary for maintaining the normal heart beat of Samia walkeri was found to be equal to or to exceed 1 to 13.8. The sodium content may be increased so that the ratio of sodium to potassium is 34 to 1 without any toxic effects. The ratios of potassium to calcium required for normal heart beat in this insect may be 1 to 1, 2 to 1, or 3 to 1.

6. The hearts of the grasshoppers beat normally in isotonic solutions having an osmotic pressure of 10.7 atmospheres. They beat equally well in solutions having an osmotic pressure of 13.4 atmospheres. The hearts of the cynthia pupae beat normally in isotonic solutions having an osmotic pressure of 13.36 atmospheres. However, they also beat normally in solutions having an osmotic pressure of 10.02 atmospheres. Therefore, although the blood of the cynthia moth and of the grasshopper have different osmotic pressures, their hearts are tolerant to solutions having the same tonicity. Because of this, and since the ratios of potassium to calcium necessary for maintaining normal heart beats of both insects are the same, solutions favorable to the grasshopper may also be favorable to the cynthia moth.

This content is only available as a PDF.