1. It is shown that collodion membranes which have received one treatment with a 1 per cent gelatin solution show for a long time (if not permanently) afterwards a different osmotic behavior from collodion membranes not treated with gelatin. This difference shows itself only towards solutions of those electrolytes which have a tendency to induce a negative electrification of the water particles diffusing through the membrane, namely solutions of acids, acid salts, and of salts with trivalent and tetravalent cations; while the osmotic behavior of the two types of membranes towards solutions of salts and alkalies, which induce a positive electrification of the water particles diffusing through the membrane, is the same.
2. When we separate solutions of salts with trivalent cation, e.g. LaCl3 or AlCl3, from pure water by a collodion membrane treated with gelatin, water diffuses rapidly into the solution; while no water diffuses into the solution when the collodion membrane has received no gelatin treatment.
3. When we separate solutions of acid from pure water by a membrane previously treated with gelatin, negative osmosis occurs; i.e., practically no water can diffuse into the solution, while the molecules of solution and some water diffuse out. When we separate solutions of acid from pure water by collodion membranes not treated with gelatin, positive osmosis will occur; i.e., water will diffuse rapidly into the solution and the more rapidly the higher the valency of the anion.
4. These differences occur only in that range of concentrations of electrolytes inside of which the forces determining the rate of diffusion of water through the membrane are predominantly electrical; i.e., in concentrations from 0 to about M/16. For higher concentrations of the same electrolytes, where the forces determining the rate of diffusion are molecular, the osmotic behavior of the two types of membranes is essentially the same.
5. The differences in the osmotic behavior of the two types of membranes are not due to differences in the permeability of the membranes for solutes since it is shown that acids diffuse with the same rate through both kinds of membranes.
6. It is shown that the differences in the osmotic behavior of the two types of collodion membranes towards solutions of acids and of salts with trivalent cation are due to the fact that in the presence of these electrolytes water diffuses in the form of negatively charged particles through the membranes previously treated with gelatin, and in the form of positively charged particles through collodion membranes not treated with gelatin.
7. A treatment of the collodion membranes with casein, egg albumin, blood albumin, or edestin affects the behavior of the membrane towards salts with trivalent or tetravalent cations and towards acids in the same way as does a treatment with gelatin; while a treatment of the membranes with peptone prepared from egg albumin, with alanine, or with starch has no such effect.