1. When a 1 per cent solution of a metal gelatinate, e.g. Na gelatinate, of pH = 8.4 is separated from distilled water by a collodion membrane, water will diffuse into the solution with a certain rate which can be measured by the rise of the level of the liquid in a manometer. When to such a solution alkali or neutral salt is added the initial rate with which water will diffuse into the solution is diminished and the more so the more alkali or salt is added. This depressing effect of the addition of alkali and neutral salt is greater when the cation of the electrolyte added is bivalent than when it is monovalent. This seems to indicate that the depressing effect is due to the cation of the electrolyte added.

2. When a neutral M/256 solution of a salt with monovalent cation (e.g. Na2SO4 or K4Fe(CN)6, etc.) is separated from distilled water by a collodion membrane, water will diffuse into the solution with a certain initial rate. When to such a solution alkali or neutral salt is added, the initial rate with which water will diffuse into the solution is diminished and the more so the more alkali or salt is added. The depressing effect of the addition of alkali or neutral salt is greater when the cation of the electrolyte added is bivalent than when it is monovalent. This seems to indicate that the depressing effect is due to the cation of the electrolyte added. The membranes used in these experiments were not treated with gelatin.

3. It can be shown that water diffuses through the collodion membrane in the form of positively charged particles under the conditions mentioned in (1) and (2). In the case of diffusion of water into a neutral solution of a salt with monovalent or bivalent cation the effect of the addition of electrolyte on the rate of diffusion can be explained on the basis of the influence of the ions on the electrification and the rate of diffusion of electrified particles of water. Since the influence of the addition of electrolyte seems to be the same in the case of solutions of metal gelatinate, the question arises whether this influence of the addition of electrolyte cannot also be explained in the same way, and, if this be true, the further question can be raised whether this depressing effect necessarily depends upon the colloidal character of the gelatin solution, or whether we are not dealing in both cases with the same property of matter; namely, the influence of ions on the electrification and rate of diffusion of water through a membrane.

4. It can be shown that the curve representing the influence of the concentration of electrolyte on the initial rate of diffusion of water from solvent into the solution through the membrane is similar to the curve representing the permanent osmotic pressure of the gelatin solution. The question which has been raised in (3) should then apply also to the influence of the concentration of ions upon the osmotic pressure and perhaps other physical properties of gelatin which depend in a similar way upon the concentration of electrolyte added; e.g., swelling.

5. When a 1 per cent solution of a gelatin-acid salt, e.g. gelatin chloride, of pH 3.4 is separated from distilled water by a collodion membrane, water will diffuse into the solution with a certain rate. When to such a solution acid or neutral salt is added—taking care in the latter case that the pH is not altered—the initial rate with which water will diffuse into the solution is diminished and the more so the more acid or salt is added. Water diffuses into a gelatin chloride solution through a collodion membrane in the form of negatively charged particles.

6. When we replace the gelatin-acid salt by a crystalloidal salt, which causes the water to diffuse through the collodion membrane in the form of negatively charged particles, e.g. M/512 Al2Cl6, we find that the addition of acid or of neutral salt will diminish the initial rate with which water diffuses into the M/512 solution of Al2Cl6, in a similar way as it does in the case of a solution of a gelatin-acid salt.

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