1. When pure water is separated by a collodion membrane from a watery solution of an electrolyte the rate of diffusion of water is influenced not only by the forces of gas pressure but also by electrical forces.
2. Water is in this case attracted by the solute as if the molecules of water were charged electrically, the sign of the charge of the water particles as well as the strength of the attractive force finding expression in the following two rules, (a) Solutions of neutral salts possessing a univalent or bivalent cation influence the rate of diffusion of water through a collodion membrane, as if the water particles were charged positively and were attracted by the anion and repelled by the cation of the electrolyte; the attractive and repulsive action increasing with the number of charges of the ion and diminishing inversely with a quantity which we will designate arbitrarily as the "radius" of the ion. The same rule applies to solutions of alkalies. (b) Solutions of neutral or acid salts possessing a trivalent or tetravalent cation influence the rate of diffusion of water through a collodion membrane as if the particles of water were charged negatively and were attracted by the cation and repelled by the anion of the electrolyte. Solutions of acids obey the same rule, the high electrostatic effect of the hydrogen ion being probably due to its small "ionic radius."
3. The correctness of the assumption made in these rules concerning the sign of the charge of the water particles is proved by experiments on electrical osmose.
4. A method is given by which the strength of the attractive electric force of electrolytes on the molecules of water can be roughly estimated and the results of these measurements are in agreement with the two rules.
5. The electric attraction of water caused by the electrolyte increases with an increase in the concentration of the electrolyte, but at low concentrations more rapidly than at high concentrations. A tentative explanation for this phenomenon is offered.
6. The rate of diffusion of an electrolyte from a solution to pure solvent through a collodion membrane seems to obey largely the kinetic theory inasmuch as the number of molecules of solute diffusing through the unit of area of the membrane in unit time is (as long as the concentration is not too low) approximately proportional to the concentration of the electrolyte and is the same for the same concentrations of LiCl, NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2.