Untoward reactions at the site of inoculation were not observed in monkeys vaccinated with influenza virus incorporated in a water-in-oil emulsion without acid-fast bacilli.
Studies were then made to measure some of the dimensions of antigenicity of these emulsions to evaluate the extent of the immunologic adjuvant effect. This included measurements of height and persistence of the antibody response to inoculation and measurements of the extent to which the vaccine could be diluted and still induce antibody formation; i.e., antigenic extinction. In addition, comparisons were made of the rates of development of hemagglutination-inhibiting, virus-neutralizing, and complement-fixing antibody activities to determine the relationship among these three properties of the serum of immunized animals.
It was found that levels of antibody many fold higher were induced by the virus-adjuvant mixtures as compared with virus in an aqueous menstruum, and that the level of antibody induced was related to the quantity of antigen incorporated in the emulsion. The stock vaccine when emulsified could be diluted 100,000-fold and was still active in antibody formation whereas a 100-fold dilution of the antigen without emulsification was essentially ineffective. Equivalent quantities of virus in 0.1 ml. or 1.0 ml. of emulsion induced antibody responses that were indistinguishable with respect to level or persistence.
In comparing the course of antibody development it was found that hemagglutination-inhibiting, virus-neutralizing, and complement-fixing antibodies develop at different rates; careful analysis of the data derived from the present study together with other observations warrant the conclusion that these antibody activities are not present in constant proportion and are independent of one another. The implications of this observation and of the others mentioned above are discussed.