Epithelial tumors have been readily obtained by the implantation of embryo stomach tissue together with olive oil containing methylcholanthrene (with or without Scharlach R) in adult mice of homologous strain. The implanted tissue from the squamous portion of the stomach rapidly encysted the oil, and benign and malignant papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas soon arose from the stratified squamous lining of the cysts. Bits of the glandular portion of the stomach also formed cysts, but the gland cells underwent metaplasia in response to the carcinogen, altering first to transitional epithelium and then to a stratified squamous layer. So swiftly did these changes take place that nearly all of the tumors took origin from epithelium that had already become stratified and squamous, and the growths themselves were of this type. A single transitional cell carcinoma and an adenoacanthoma were procured, but no adenocarcinomas; nor did any benign papillomas develop, though they often resulted from the action of methylcholanthrene on the squamous portion of the embryo stomach. Search failed to disclose any distinctive precancerous changes in the gastric tissue. Five of the cancers were transplanted and they grew in every host.
No tumors arose from any of the numerous control implants. Those consisting of glandular tissue formed cysts lined partly with columnar epithelium secreting mucus and partly with tubular glands equipped with chief and parietal cells in good condition. Pepsin and rennin were found in the fluid contained in these cysts, but no free hydrochloric acid. The enzymes were present also when the cysts contained methylcholanthrene and the glands had not yet been wholly replaced by metaplastic epithelium.
The tumors appeared months sooner than when methylcholanthrene is injected into the stomach of adult animals or given by mouth; some of them were well established after 5 or 6 weeks. They arose regularly when the requisite experimental conditions were provided. The utilization of transplanted embryo tissue provides a means whereby gastric tumors free from bacterial infection can be procured swiftly and easily.