Rabbits injected with emulsions of homologous kidney to which staphylcoccus or streptococcus toxins had been added produced complement fixing antibodies which reacted with both rabbit kidney and brain. By absorption tests it was demonstrated that the sera contained at least two antibodies, one specific for kidney, the other non-specific. Similar kidney antibodies were found in the blood of a majority of patients with scarlet fever but in only a few normal persons. The possibility that a similar or related antibody may be concerned in the etiology of scarlatinal nephritis is discussed.

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