1. Wright's method for the study of chemotaxis of leucocytes in vitro, slightly modified, has been found to be most satisfactory in the estimation of the degree of chemotaxis of various substances, because it is possible to make an exact quantitative determination of the leucocytes that have migrated from the blood clot and adhere to the surfaces containing the tested substance.
2. The calcium ion is the only inorganic ion per se which is found to be positively chemotactic under the conditions of these experiments. It is markedly chemotactic in all concentrations and in all combinations, except the citrate. Here the negative chemotaxis of the citrate ion neutralizes the positive chemotaxis of the calcium ion, and neutrality of chemotactic effect results.
3. The sodium and magnesium ions themselves are neutral. Magnesium and sodium salts are dependent upon the negative ion with which the magnesium or sodium is combined for such positive or negative chemotaxis as is exhibited. All the phosphates of sodium, whether tri-, di-, or monobasic salts, are markedly positively chemotactic, and when combined with other reagents which are themselves neutral or negatively chemotactic, produce marked positive chemotaxis. The blood of a person who has taken phosphates either by mouth or intravenously shows a great increase in chemotaxis with sodium phosphate, with calcium chloride, and even with sodium chloride which is ordinarily neutral.
4. All potassium salts are negatively chemotactic.
5. Many substances act synergistically as regards chemotaxis; e.g., when strontium and magnesium salts are mixed there is a marked increase in chemotaxis. Sodium phosphate acts synergistically with calcium chloride.
6. Mercury salts fix the leucocytes in this method so that their influence on chemotaxis cannot be determined.
7. Morphine and morphine salts are positively chemotactic; this is contrary to the results obtained by others with different methods.
8. Substances which produce a very acute inflammation, such as cantharidin, histamine, or turpentine, are found to be positively chemotactic by this method, but substances, such as mustard gas, which produce a marked necrotizing effect are found to be negatively chemotactic, or neutral, though physiologically they would appear to be positively chemotactic.
9. All amino-acids and amines are positively chemotactic to a certain extent. It seems that the longer the carbon chain, the greater the degree of chemotaxis, though this is not absolute. Tyramine is one exception to this, for it causes a peculiar clumping of the cells, so that it is impossible to count the number adhering, and thus determine whether or not tyramine is positively chemotactic.
10. The time that the blood of animals is examined after eating makes a marked difference in the number of cells adhering, for shortly after eating, within 30 minutes, very many more cells will adhere to the agar than at a later time.
11. The blood of different species of animals reacts differently towards different reagents. The chemical composition of these agents seems to have nothing to do with this difference in reaction as far as we could determine.
12. With frozen serial sections it has been found that the depth of penetration of the leucocytes into the agar is proportional to the positive chemotaxis produced by the substance combined with the agar, as demonstrated by the number of leucocytes adherent to the walls of the test chambers.