The varieties of spirochetes enumerated and photomicrographed from the male smegma flora represent practically every form hitherto described by Nankivell and Sundell and by Patterson in the specimens of urine from trench fever cases (Figs. 32 and 33). The urethral flora, as studied by Stoddard, seem to contain more varieties, but, except those of his more detailed morphological descriptions, every form observed by him is among those found in the smegma. Stoddard saw certain forms with hooked ends suggestive of the Leptospira icterohæmorrhagiæ of infectious jaundice, but the resemblance ends with this one feature, and differentiation should always be possible under the dark-field microscope, by means of which the leptospira reveals its highly characteristic minute elementary spirals, presenting the appearance of a chain of dots (Fig. 18). Fig. 19 shows that a very favorable fixation with the osmic acid vapor followed by Giemsa's staining may also bring out the elementary spirals. Of all the spirochetes, none has so closely set spirals as the jaundice leptospira, the distance between two spirals being only 0.5 µ. Various methods, including Fontana's, Benians', the mordant gentian violet stain, or Burri's India ink method, are inadequate to differentiate the leptospira from other spirochetes (Figs. 12, 14, 15, 16, 17).

Why a positive spirochete finding with the films from the urethra and in the specimens of urine was not obtained, is difficult to explain, except on the grounds of the paucity of specimens examined. At all events, the recent negative results reported by Fiessinger with French soldiers and invalids after cleansing of the urethra and glans seem to be in harmony with my results.

In conclusion it may be stated that Spironema refringens, Treponema calligyrum, and Treponema minutum represent practically all the spirochetal forms observed in the male smegma flora. A leptospira has never been conclusively shown to be present in the specimens of normal urine or smegma. For the satisfactory microscopic demonstration of a leptospira a dark-field illuminator is indispensable.

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