A definite intoxication develops as a result of a closed intestinal loop and toxic material accumulates in the closed loops. Much evidence has been submitted to show that this loop poison causes the intoxication observed after producing a closed intestinal loop. Sufficient evidence has been presented to prove that the essential poison is present in these closed intestinal loops, and usually in concentrated form.
Chemical study of the contents of closed intestinal loops shows that a single substance or group of substances possesses toxic properties. This resists autolysis and pancreatic and ereptic digestion. It is thrown out of solution by five volumes of alcohol or by half saturation with ammonium sulphate. It is readily soluble in water and is not injured by boiling. It is not removed by dialysis. The method of isolation excludes practically all substances except primary proteoses. The characteristic resistance to digestive enzymes suggests a heteroproteose.
Proteose intoxication in dogs gives a picture identical with that described after poisoning with intestinal loop fluid: early salivation and vomiting, followed by diarrhea and prostration, fall in temperature and blood pressure, and finally death in collapse. Autopsy shows essentially a splanchnic paralysis and remarkable engorgement of liver and spleen, but especially of the mucosa of the duodenum and small intestine. The blood shows great concentration due to loss of fluid and may remain incoagulable because of an excess production of antithrombin.
Proteoses escaping from the blood are excreted in the urine. This toxic proteose concerned in intestinal obstruction has not yet been isolated in the urine, but may be excreted by the kidneys. This probably explains the clinical improvement and lessened intoxication noted after transfusion.
Experimental evidence points to a primary proteose as the essential poison concerned in the intoxication of closed intestinal loops and intestinal obstruction.