The success of solid tumor growth and metastasis is dependent upon angiogenesis. Neovascularization within the tumor is regulated, in part, by a dual and opposing system of angiogenic and angiostatic factors. We now report that IP-10, a recently described angiostatic factor, as a potent angiostatic factor that regulates non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-derived angiogenesis, tumor growth, and spontaneous metastasis. We initially found significantly elevated levels of IP-10 in freshly isolated human NSCLC samples of squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA). In contrast, levels of IP-10 were equivalent in either normal lung tissue or adenocarcinoma specimens. The neoplastic cells in specimens of SCCA were the predominant cells that appeared to express IP-10 by immunolocalization. Neutralization of IP-10 in SCCA tumor specimens resulted in enhanced tumor-derived angiogenic activity. Using a model of human NSCLC tumorigenesis in SCID mice, we found that NSCLC tumor growth was inversely correlated with levels of plasma or tumor-associated IP-10. IP-10 in vitro functioned as neither an autocrine growth factor nor as an inhibitor of proliferation of the NSCLC cell lines. Reconstitution of intratumor IP-10 for a period of 8 wk resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth, tumor-associated angiogenic activity and neovascularization, and spontaneous lung metastases, whereas, neutralization of IP-10 for 10 wk augmented tumor growth. These findings support the notion that tumor-derived IP-10 is an important endogenous angiostatic factor in NSCLC.

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