Human neutrophils at inflammatory sites may be an important source of the chemotactic cytokines macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (M1P-1 alpha; a C-C chemokine) and interleukin 8 (IL-8; a C-X-C chemokine). In this study, we show that the inflammatory microcrystals monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD), the major mediators of gout and pseudogout, differentially regulate the production of these two chemokines by human neutrophils. Both MSU and CPPD increased the secretion of IL-8 by neutrophils in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but had no effect on that of MIP-1 alpha. Since inflammatory cytokines are likely to be present in the synovium during crystal-induced inflammation, we examined the interaction between TNF-alpha and GM-CSF and the crystals. Both TNF-alpha and GM-CSF stimulated IL-8 production; however, only TNF-alpha exerted a significant effect on MIP-1 alpha secretion in neutrophils. IL-8 production induced by TNF-alpha and GM-CSF was synergistically enhanced in the presence of MSU or CPPD, whereas MIP-1 alpha secretion induced by TNF was completely inhibited in the presence of either MSU or CPPD. Interestingly, no interaction between the crystals and the inflammatory cytokines was observed with respect to synthesis of the C-X-C chemokine MGSA in neutrophils. These results suggest that the combination of TNF-alpha and GM-CSF with MSU or CPPD will lead to the production of IL-8 by neutrophils and abolish the release of MIP-1 alpha, an event that will theoretically lead to recruitment of neutrophils but not mononuclear cells. These results are in accordance with the pathological state of gout and pseudogout, where the predominant inflammatory cell is the neutrophil.

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