Effective immunity to many infectious agents, particularly viruses, requires a CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. Understanding how to achieve CTL induction with soluble proteins is important for vaccine development since such antigens are usually not processed appropriately to induce CTL. In the present report, we have demonstrated that a potent primary CTL response against a soluble protein can be achieved by delivering antigen in pH-sensitive liposomes to dendritic cells (DC) either in vivo or in vitro. Since the pH-sensitive liposome delivery system is efficient and easy to use, the approach promises to be valuable both in the study of basic mechanisms in antigen processing, and as a practical means of immunization.

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