Two recently identified and purified murine macrophage inflammatory proteins MIP-1 and MIP-2 were tested in vitro both alone, and in combination with purified recombinant (r) murine (mu) GM-CSF, natural (n)muCSF-1, or rhuman (hu)G-CSF, for effects on mouse marrow CFU-GM, in combination with erythropoietin for effects on mouse marrow BFU-E, and in combination with rhuGM-CSF or rhuG-CSF for effects on human marrow CFU-GM. MIP-1 and MIP-2 did not stimulate, but did enhance by up to threefold, colony formation of mouse CFU-GM co-stimulated by rmuGM-CSF and nmuCSF-1, but not by rhuG-CSF, in the absence or presence of serum. MIP-1 and MIP-2 were maximally active at concentrations greater than or equal to 100 ng/ml and the actions appeared to be initiated during the DNA synthetic portion of the cell cycle. Neither MIP-1 nor MIP-2 at up to 1 microgram/ml had any effect on mouse BFU-E, in the absence or presence of erythropoietin. Both MIP-1 and MIP-2 had direct acting effects on purified mouse CFU-GM. The cloning efficiency of 200 purified cells plated with 50 U muCSF-1 was 82% with and 43% without MIP; the cloning efficiency with 50 U rmuGM-CSF was 65% with and 35% without MIP. MIP effects were not mimicked by bacterial LPS, rhuIL-1 alpha, rhuIL-6, or rmuIL-4, and were neutralized by their respective specific antibodies. MIP-1 and MIP-2 also enhanced endogenously stimulated and rhuGM-CSF-, but not rhuG-CSF-, stimulated colony formation by human marrow CFU-GM. These results demonstrate a new role for MIP-1 and MIP-2 in vitro as myelopoietic enhancing activities for CFU-GM.

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