We have isolated a 725-bp full-length cDNA clone for the human eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). ECP is a small, basic protein found in the matrix of the eosinophil's large specific granule that has cytotoxic, helminthotoxic, and ribonuclease activity, and is a member of the ribonuclease multigene family. The cDNA sequence shows 89% sequence identity with that reported for the related granule protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). The open reading frame encodes a previously unidentified 27-amino acid leader sequence preceding a 133-residue mature ECP polypeptide with a molecular mass of 15.6 kD. The encoded amino acid sequence of ECP shows 66% identity to that of EDN and 31% identity to that of human pancreatic ribonuclease, including conservation of the essential structural cysteine and cataytic lysine and histidine residues. mRNA for ECP was detected in eosinophil-enriched peripheral granulocytes and in a subclone of the promyelocytic leukemia line, HL-60, induced toward eosinophilic differentiation with IL-5. No ECP mRNA was detected in uninduced HL-60 cells, or in HL-60 cells induced toward monocytic differentiation with vitamin D3 or toward neutrophilic differentiation with DMSO. In contrast, mRNA for EDN was detected in uninduced HL-60 cells and was upregulated in HL-60 cells induced with DMSO. Despite similarities in sequence and cellular localization, these results suggest that ECP and EDN are subject to different regulatory mechanisms.
Human eosinophil cationic protein. Molecular cloning of a cytotoxin and helminthotoxin with ribonuclease activity.
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H F Rosenberg, S J Ackerman, D G Tenen; Human eosinophil cationic protein. Molecular cloning of a cytotoxin and helminthotoxin with ribonuclease activity.. J Exp Med 1 July 1989; 170 (1): 163–176. doi: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.170.1.163
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