We have investigated the influence of granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) on the replication of HIV-1 in cells of monocyte/macrophage (M/M) lineage, and its effect on the anti-HIV activity of several 2'3'-dideoxynucleoside congeners of thymidine in these cells in vitro. We found that replication of both HTLV-IIIBa-L (a monocytotropic strain of HIV-1) and HTLV-IIIB (a lymphocytotropic strain) is markedly enhanced in M/M, but not in lymphocytes exposed to GM-CSF in culture. Moreover, GM-CSF reduced the dose of HIV required to obtain productive infection in M/M. Even in the face of this increased infection, GM-CSF also enhanced the net anti-HIV activity of 3'-azido-2'3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) and several related congeners: 2'3'-dideoxythymidine (ddT), 2'3'-dideoxy-2'3'-didehydrothymidine (D4T), and 3'-azido-2'3'-dideoxyuridine (AZddU). Inhibition of viral replication in GM-CSF-exposed M/M was achieved with concentrations of AZT and related drugs, which were 10-100 times lower than those inhibitory for HIV-1 in monocytes in the absence of GM-CSF. Other dideoxynucleosides not related to AZT showed unchanged or decreased anti-HIV activity in GM-CSF-exposed M/M. To investigate the possible biochemical basis for these effects, we evaluated the metabolism of several drugs in M/M exposed to GM-CSF. We observed in these cells markedly increased levels of both parent and mono-, di-, and triphosphate anabolites of AZT and D4T compared with M/M not exposed to GM-CSF. By contrast, only limited increases of endogenous competing 2'-deoxynucleoside-5'-triphosphate pools were observed after GM-CSF exposure. Thus, the ratio of AZT-5'-triphosphate/2'-deoxythymidine-5'-triphosphate and 2'3'-dideoxy-2'3'-didehydrothymidine-5'-triphosphate/2'-deoxythymi dine- 5'-triphosphate is several-fold higher in GM-CSF-exposed M/M, and this may account for the enhanced activity of such drugs in these cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that GM-CSF increases HIV-1 replication in M/M, while at the same time enhancing the anti-HIV activity of AZT and related congeners in these cells. These results may have implications in exploring new therapeutic strategies in patients with severe HIV infection.
Replication of human immunodeficiency virus in monocytes. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) potentiates viral production yet enhances the antiviral effect mediated by 3'-azido-2'3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) and other dideoxynucleoside congeners of thymidine.
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C F Perno, R Yarchoan, D A Cooney, N R Hartman, D S Webb, Z Hao, H Mitsuya, D G Johns, S Broder; Replication of human immunodeficiency virus in monocytes. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) potentiates viral production yet enhances the antiviral effect mediated by 3'-azido-2'3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) and other dideoxynucleoside congeners of thymidine.. J Exp Med 1 March 1989; 169 (3): 933–951. doi: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.169.3.933
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