Typing of DNA from 94 unrelated children with celiac disease (CD) with HLA-DQA1 and -DQB1 allele-specific oligonucleotide probes revealed that all but one (i.e., 98.9%) may share a particular combination of a DQA1 and a DQB1 gene. These genes are arranged in cis position on the DR3DQw2 haplotype and in trans position in DR5DQw7/DR7DQw2 heterozygous individuals. Thus, most CD patients may share the same cis- or trans-encoded HLA-DQ alpha/beta heterodimer.

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