Long survival of (AS X AUG)F1 rat kidney allografts in AS recipients was induced by passive enhancement with AS anti-AUG antiserum at the time of grafting. After 1-3 mo, the kidney allografts were transferred to second AS recipients, either naive or sensitized against AUG tissue. Naive second recipients did not reject the grafts acutely and failed to mount T-dependent immunity against AUG targets. When later challenged with spleen cells carrying the AUG haplotype, the naive second AS recipients showed strong IgM, IgG, and cytotoxic T-cell responses after grafting, and the kidneys were rapidly destroyed by immune rejection in all but one rat. It is concluded that long-surviving kidney allografts fail to activate helper T cells and induce in naive second recipients the same state of unresponsiveness observed in the first recipient.

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