AKR mice with spontaneous leukemia were infused with normal serum from a variety of species. Leukemia cell destruction was produced by serum from strains of mice possessing the full spectrum of complement components, but not by serum from strains with a genetically determined deficiency of C5. Serum from guinea pigs, horses, and humans also causes destruction of leukemia cells. The antileukemic factor in normal serum was heat labile (56°C for 35 min) and could be inactivated by cobra venom factor (CVF). Tests of individual complement factors from guinea pig serum and from human serum suggest that C5 is the antileukemic complement component in normal serum. Evidence was obtained that complement also plays a role in the antileukemic effect of interferon and endotoxin.

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