Two types of thymus-derived (T) lymphocytes have been shown to cooperate in the induction of graft-versus-host responses. One cell type is found in highest concentrations in the peripheral blood and lymph node, is extremely sensitive to anti-thymocyte serum (ATS) in vivo, and is probably part of the recirculating lymphoid cell pool (3). The second cell type, found in highest concentrations in the thymus and spleen, is relatively resistant to small doses of ATS in vivo. Both cell types are substantially depleted after neonatal thymectomy.
Moreover, since synergism was also obtained using appropriate mixtures of cells from either parental strain in F1 hosts, it was possible to show that the nonrecirculating cells determined the specificity of the response and were probably the precursors of effector cells in this response. The recirculating T cell appeared to amplify this response. The implications of these data are discussed.