Leukocytes from nine patients with acquired agammaglobulinemia were studied in vitro. Synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) induced by phytohemagglutinin was measured by determination of the degree of incorporation of labeled precursor. Synthesis of both DNA and RNA was decreased in the agammaglobulinemic cells. The presence of an inhibitor in the patients' sera could not be demonstrated. These results suggest that the basic defect in agammaglobulinemia is cellular rather than humoral.

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