Acute chloride depletion in rats is associated with the occurrence of an extensive cell damage in the mid-portion of the proximal convolutions which is followed by an excessive hyperplastic reaction of the renal epithelium; no other significant lesions were found by microdissection in either the tubules of the nephrons or the collecting system.

Potassium deficiency is not essential to the development of this lesion but does increase the severity of the reaction.

As in the case of potassium deficiency, chloride depletion predisposes to or exaggerates the structural alterations that accompany excess phosphate intake.

The relations of the different structural changes in renal architecture that occur in various states of electrolyte imbalance are discussed as well as the relation of the lesions seen experimentally in the rat and monkey and clinically in man.

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