A model system for the investigation of immune cellular injury in primary isolates of a fixed-tissue cell of human origin has been described, using metabolism-inhibition and uptake of trypan blue as independent criteria of cytoxicity. Cytotoxic effects on human amnion cells were produced by the combination of specific rabbit antibody and factors in normal human serum which were indistinguishable from the components of hemolytic complement and calcium and magnesium ions. The data have been discussed in relation to the apparent multiplicity of serologic systems which can effect cellular injury. The nature of the cell and the source of antibody or normal serum constituents have been emphasized as factors which may influence the experimental selection of a given humoral mechanism.

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