Certain aspects of the formation of non-infectious hemagglutinins (NIHA) in the chick embryo infected with influenza virus have been analyzed.
It was shown by the use of combined in ovo-deembryonation technics that little or no NIHA is released following infection with small doses of standard virus during the most active and constant growth periods of the virus extending to about the 36th hour of incubation in spite of the fact that multiple infection of cells must have taken place in the latter half of that period. A slight decrease in the ID50/HA ratios of the yields obtained after the 36th hour, coinciding with the falling off of virus production and release may possibly be explained in terms of inactivation of completed virus or leakage of as yet incompleted virus from damaged cells.
Exposure of the entodermal cells of the allantois of eggs deembryonated shortiy after injection of saturation or near saturation inocula of standard seed to large quantities of infectious virus added to the media at various times after infection and not extending over more than 2 hours resulted in a decrease of the ID50/HA ratios of the progenies only during the first 2 or possibly 4 hours after the primary inoculation. Later addition did not influence the yields. As discussed, such sudden and heavy exposures of cells are not expected to occur during the infectious process induced by small inocula of standard seed.
The possible role of destruction of cell receptors in NIHA production has been analyzed in several ways. The addition of receptor-destroying enzyme (RDE) to the media of deembryonated eggs after near saturation inocula of standard seeds, if anything, increased the ID50/HA ratios of the progenies, and that only when added during the first few hours following infection, presumably by reducing the changes for high multiplicity of infection of cells. In contrast, ultraviolet-inactivated virus, which retains its enzymatic activity, lowered, if anything, the ID50/HA ratios of the progenies, when present in the media of deembryonated eggs from the 2nd to 4th or possibly 6th hour after infection. Excessive amounts of irradiated virus may still cause some degree of interference under these conditions. Later addition of irradiated viruses were without effect with respect to NIHA production or interference. In attempts to alter the cell receptors prior to infection by potassium periodate (KIO4), it was noted that the addition of glycerol led to the appearance and partial retention for at least 24 hours of substances in the allantoic fluids which were capable of inactivating considerable proportions of standard virus. These data indicate that destruction of external cell receptors plays little if any role in NIHA production.
The implications of these findings are discussed.