Relations are derived that describe the combined effects of electrodiffusion, the Na/K pump, and Na/Ca transport by carrier on the resting membrane potential. Equations are derived that apply to both steady-state and non-steady-state conditions. Some example calculations from the equations are plotted at different permeability coefficient ratios, PK:PCa:PNa. The equations predict a depolarizing action of Na/Ca transport when more than two Na ions per Ca ion are transported by the carrier. For all permeability ratios examined, a steady state for Ca ions is achieved with at most a few millivolts of depolarization.

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